In Medina, Muhammad united the tribes under the Constitution of Medina.In December 629, after eight years of intermittent wars with Meccan tribes, Muhammad gathered an army of 10,000 Muslim converts and marched on the city of Mecca.The Arabian Peninsula was largely arid and volcanic, making agriculture difficult except near oases or springs.The landscape was dotted with towns and cities; two of the most prominent being Mecca and Medina.Other important sources include the hadith collections, accounts of the verbal and physical teachings and traditions of Muhammad.Hadiths were compiled several generations after his death by followers including Muhammad al-Bukhari, Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj, Muhammad ibn Isa at-Tirmidhi, Abd ar-Rahman al-Nasai, Abu Dawood, Ibn Majah, Malik bin Anas, al-Daraqutni.
In 632, a few months after returning from the Farewell Pilgrimage, he fell ill and died.
As well as being the site of an annual pilgrimage, the Kaaba shrine in Mecca housed 360 idols of tribal patron deities.
Three goddesses were associated with Allah as his daughters: Allāt, Manāt and al-‘Uzzá.
CE (Year of the Elephant) in the Arabian city of Mecca, Muhammad was orphaned at an early age; he was raised under the care of his paternal uncle Abu Talib.
Periodically, he would seclude himself in a mountain cave named Hira for several nights of prayer; later, at age 40, he reported being visited by Gabriel in the cave, Muhammad gained few early followers, and met hostility from Meccan polytheists.
At the age of six, Muhammad lost his biological mother Amina to illness and became an orphan.