Lorraine was even briefly placed under the suzerainty of Bar during the early years of the 13th century.
Duke Thibaut I became embroiled in the dispute over the succession to the county of Champagne between 12, when Friedrich II King of Germany invaded Lorraine and took the duke back to Germany as a prisoner.
The duchy of Lorraine was the rump of the early medieval duchy of Upper Lotharingia, centred on Nancy.
The difficulty is pinpointing the date when "Lotharingia" transformed into "Lorraine".
Considering that Hedwig gave birth to two children by her husband Gerhard von Spplingenburg who died in 1075, such a birth date appears incompatible with Duke Simon's wife having given birth to at least seven children, even if their marriage took place as early as [1112/13] as suggested by Poull.
"Simon..Lotharingi et marchio" donated ecclesiam..Pixerecourt...partem decimarum vill..Margeville et Augecourt to the abbey of Bouxires-aux-Dames, in the presence of soror mea domina Hara abbatiss, by charter dated Matthus..Lotharingi et marchio confirmed the possessions of the abbey of Bouxires-aux-Dames donated by pater meus Simon et avus meus Theodericus, at the request of patru me domin Har abbatiss sanct Mari de Monte, by charter dated , in the presence of uxore mea Bertha Theodoricus...
Simonis, Theodorici, Gerardi, Henrici, by charter dated Theodoricus...
The duchy remained within imperial territory, the dukes being suzerains of the emperor/king of Germany.
However, Lorraine gradually lost status and territory, especially after the rise of the comtes de Bar to the west of the duchy.
Pibo Bishop of Toul granted privileges to the monastery of Toul Saint-Lon and named "dux Theodericus et Simon puer eius filius, et frater ducis Gerardus comes et Renardus comes Tillensis" by charter dated . Theodericus..Lotharingi et marchio, after fili me Frounica..Hara became nuns Frounica in Romarico-monte et Hara in Buxeriis, donated property to Bouxires by charter dated [misdated] (-after ).