'As a result, wildlife is exposed to all of these chemicals.'Fish are receiving this cocktail of drugs 24 hours a day, and we are now finding these drugs in their brains.' Dr Singh says that the problem is exacerbated by sewage overflows that funnel large amounts of untreated water into rivers and lakes.In general, wastewater treatment focuses narrowly on killing disease-causing bacteria and on extracting solid matter such as human excrement.But antidepressants, which are found in the urine of people who use the drugs, are largely ignored, along with other worrisome chemicals that have become common.'As a result, wildlife is exposed to all of these chemicals,' says Dr Diana Aga, the lead author of the study and a Professor of Chemistry in the University at Buffalo College of Arts and Sciences.'Fish are receiving this cocktail of drugs 24 hours a day, and we are now finding these drugs in their brains.' The discovery of antidepressants in aquatic life in the river raises serious environmental concerns, says lead author of the study Dr Diana Aga, a Professor of Chemistry in the University at Buffalo College of Arts and Sciences.'These active ingredients from antidepressants, which are coming out from wastewater treatment plants, are accumulating in fish brains,' Dr Aga says.Dr Aga says that wastewater treatment facilities have not kept pace with this growth, ignoring these drugs which are then released into the environment.
The flows are made of flowing molten lava that once moved over the Red Planet's surface, and have been pictured in stunning new 3D images.
'Some fish won't acknowledge the presence of predators as much.' Dr Randolph Singh, a co-author of the study, says that if changes like these occur in the wild, they have the potential to disrupt the delicate balance between species that help to keep the ecosystem stable.
'The levels of antidepressants found do not pose a danger to humans who eat the fish, especially in the US, where most people do not eat organs like the brain,' Dr Singh says.
For example, in the brains of smallmouth bass, largemouth bass, rock bass, white bass and walleye, sertraline was detected at levels that were about 20 or more times higher than levels in the river.
And levels of norsertraline, the drug's breakdown byproduct, were even greater, reaching concentrations that were hundreds of times higher than those in the river.
The photos were sent back by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), which was launched in 2005 and has been sending images back of the planet's surface since soon after that.